Any division of philosophy into different branches is bound to be somewhat roughshod and arbitrary. This website groups philosophy into five topics:
Epistemology is concerned with the conditions under which we can know something, the justifications that we can offer for claims to know it, and the methods that may help us come to know it. Watch Epistemology: Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge on Youtube or read this article from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy for more information.
Metaphysics is a diverse subject and creating a succinct definition is difficult. It attempts to explain the fundamental nature of being, existence and reality. Listen to Kit Fine on What is Metaphysics? on the Philosophy Bites podcast or read this article from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy for more information.
Ethics is primarily concerned with how people ought to act. More broadly, it investigates what constitutes living a good life. Watch An Introduction to Ethics on YouTube or read this article from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy for more information.
Political Philosophy is concerned with how we ought to organize society. Two problems central to political philosophy are how property, rights and political power should be distributed and who should have the authority to make political decision. Listen to the episode on Utopia from the In Our Time podcast for more information.
Aesthetics is concerned with the nature of beauty, and more broadly with the nature of art. For more information, listen to the episode on Beauty on the In Our Time podcast or read this article from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.